Access to Balanced feed formula is the Panacea to Productive Animal Production Enterprise! 

PREPARED ANIMALS’ FEED FORMULA:

Access to Balanced feed formula is the Panacea to Productive Animal Production Enterprise!

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Copyright © Emmanuel Jacob

FEED FORMULA AND FEED FORMULATION INTRODUCTION

A feed formula is a stated animal ration’s fact expressed in values of individual ingredients required to meet the animal’s desired nutritional requirements.

A simple arithmetic process known as feed formulation is used to generate an animal feed formula.

FORMULATION OF FEED

Animal feed formulation is the art and science of combining or mixing two or more ingredients in appropriate proportions to produce a balanced ration for the optimum growth of the animal in question.

We have a wide range of protein, energy, fiber, and other ingredients and minerals… The combination of these ingredients in appropriate proportions or measures to meet the nutritional requirements of animals for optimum growth, development, and production is referred to as feed formulation.

Feed formulation calculation is a simple, step-by-step mathematical method for calculating an animal’s nutritional requirements.

The art of weighing, crushing, and mixing the number of values generated from the feed’s formulation calculations is known as feed production. Feed production is the practical application of feed formulation

Feed production is the process of weighing, crushing, and mixing the number of values generated by the feed formulation calculations. The practical application of feed formulation is feed production.

Feed is a critical principle factor and actor in animal production, accounting for more than 60% of total production costs. To reduce the enormous cost of production, every farmer must understand the fundamental principles and rudiments of feed formulation and production

 

BASIC FOUNDATIONAL KNOWLEDGE IN FEED FORMULATION

These are the critical information about the animal for which you want to produce feed. These are the fundamentals required to formulate and feed balanced feed to your animals.

  1. Determine the species of bird or animal for which you want to develop feed… pigs, broilers, and layers
  2. Determine the purpose of raising such a bird – is it for eggs, meat production, or breeding…?
  3. Understand the animal’s age – age is often used to categorize the type of feed to be fed to animals. We have two broiler age categories: broiler starter and broiler finisher, and three pullet age categories: chick mash, grower mash, and layers mash.
  4. Understand an animal’s nutritional requirements – you must understand the crude protein, energy, and other essential amino acids required for optimal growth.
  5. Understand the available raw materials and their nutrient contents – be familiar with the nutritional values of various feed ingredients to be used.
  6. Consider the weather – the weather has a significant impact on feed formulation, particularly in determining the energy level of the feed. Because broilers require more metabolizable energy (ME) to meet up in the body’s system in the cold season, you will likely increase the energy content of feed in the cold season and decrease it in the extremely hot season.
  7. Understand ingredient selection and priority- because not all ingredients are appropriate for a specific animal, you must understand the limiting factors of each ingredient (anti-nutritional elements)

Chapter 2

FEED FORMULA FOR BROILERS

Broilers are meat-producing birds raised specifically for consumption. Broiler feed is divided into two categories: broiler starter (fed from 0 to 4 weeks) and broiler finisher (from the beginning of the 5th week to disposal)

THE BROILER STARTER FORMULA

A

Maize 55kg

Soybean meal (SBM) 18.48kg     

Soy full fat 16.095kg

Fish meal 1.5kg (72% cp)

Lysine 0.25kg (250g)

Methionine 0.30kg (300g)

Salt 0.50kg (500g)

Vitamin Premix 0.25kg (250g)

Bone meal 2.50kg (2500g)

Limestone 2.50kg (2500g)

Enzymes 0.025kg (25g)

Toxic binder 0.10kg (100g)

Quick harvest plus  2.50kg (2500g)

Crude Protein (cp): 23%  

Metabolizable energy (ME) 3301 Kcal/kg

B

Maize 55kg

Soybean meal (SBM) 19kg     

soy full fat 14kg

Animal plasma 5kg (80% cp)

Lysine 0.25kg (250g)

Methionine 0.30kg (300g)

Salt 0.50kg (500g)

Vitamin Premix 0.25kg (250g)

Bone meal 0.50kg (500g)

Limestone 0.50kg (500g)

Enzymes 0.025kg (25g)

Toxic binder 0.20kg (100g)

Quick harvest plus 2.50kg (2500g)

Crude Protein (cp): 23.50%  

Metabolizable energy (ME) 3266.92 Kcal/kg

CHEAP FORMULA… supplemented with cassava peels to be used after 2 weeks

A

Maize 35.45kg

Cassava peel 17kg

Soybean meal (SBM) 20kg     

soy full fat 15kg

Animal plasma 3.5kg (80% cp)

Lysine 0.25kg (250g)

Methionine 0.30kg (300g)

Salt 0.50kg (500g)

Vitamin Premix 0.25kg (250g)

Bone meal 2.50kg (2500g)

Limestone 2.50kg (2500g)

Enzymes 0.25kg (250g)

Toxic binder 0.20kg (100g)

Quick harvest plus 2.50kg (2500g)

Crude Protein (cp): 23.50%  

Metabolizable energy (ME) 3266.92 Kcal/kg

Feed formula is generally stated in 100%, you can then multiply it out to another higher desired level. For example, if I want to produce 1 ton, every value of each ingredient is multiplied by 10…

THE BROILER FINISHER FORMULA (week 5  till disposal)

A

Maize 60kg

Palm Kernel Cake (PKC) 3.025kg

Soybean meal (SBM) 14kg

soy full fat 17.5kg

Fish meal (72% cp) 2kg

Lysine 0.30kg (300g)

Methionine 0.30kg (300g)

Salt 0.50kg (500g)

Vitamin Premix 0.25kg (250g)

Bone meal 1kg (1000g)

Limestone 1kg (1000g)

Enzymes 0.025kg (25g)

Toxic binder 0.10kg (100g)

Crude Protein (cp): 21.04%   

Metabolizable energy (ME) 3342.47 Kcal/kg

B

Maize 62kg

Wheat bran or BDG  5.075kg

Soybean meal (SBM) 10kg

soy full fat 14.50kg

Animal plasma (80% cp) 5kg

Lysine 0.25kg (250g)

Methionine 0.30kg (300g)

Salt 0.50kg (500g)

Vitamin Premix 0.25kg (250g)

Bone meal 1kg (1000g)

Limestone 1kg (1000g)

Enzymes 0.025kg (25g)

Toxic binder 0.10kg (100g)

Crude Protein (cp): 21.70%  

Metabolizable energy (ME) 3346.46 Kcal/kg

C

Maize 60kg

Palm kernel cake (PKC)  7kg

Soybean meal (SBM) 10kg

soy full fat 16kg

Animal plasma (80% cp) 3.60kg

Lysine 0.30kg (300g)

Methionine 0.30kg (300g)

Salt 0.50kg (500g)

Vitamin Premix 0.25kg (250g)

Bone meal 1kg (1000g)

Limestone 1kg (1000g)

Enzymes 0.025kg (25g)

Toxic binder 0.10kg (100g)

Crude Protein (cp): 21%  

Metabolizable energy (ME) 3318 Kcal/kg

 

Feed formula is generally stated in 100%, you can then multiply it out to another higher desired level. For example, if I want to produce 1 ton, every value of each ingredient is multiplied by 10…

Note

DiCalcium Phosphate (DCP) can be used where animal bone meal is not available. DCP at 1 to 2g/kg of feed

 

Chapter 3

FEED FORMULA FOR PULLETS

The feed under this category are generally classified into 3 groups: the chick mash, grower mash and layer mash.

THE CHICK MASH FORMULA (0-8 WEEKS)

A

Maize 55kg

Wheat bran 3kg

Soybean meal (SBM) 23.23kg

Soybean cake (SBC) 14.25kg

Lysine 0.25kg (250g)

Methionine 0.30kg (300g)

Salt 0.50kg (500g)

Vitamin Premix 0.25kg (250g)

Bone meal 1.50kg (1500g)

Limestone 1.50kg (1500g)

Enzymes 0.025kg (25g)

Neobron 0.10kg (100g)

Toxic binder 0.10kg (100g)

Crude Protein (cp): 22.53%  

Metabolizable energy (ME) 3263.36 Kcal/kg

B

Maize 58kg

Palm Kernel Cake  7kg

Soybean meal (SBM) 25kg

Fish meal 3.50kg

Lysine 0.25kg (250g)

Methionine 0.30kg (300g)

Salt 0.50kg (500g)

Vitamin Premix 0.25kg (250g)

Bone meal 2.50kg (2500g)

Limestone 2.50kg (2500g)

Enzymes 0.025kg (25g)

Phytase 0.15kg (150g)

Toxic binder 0.10kg (100g)

Crude Protein (cp): 22.53%  

Metabolizable energy (ME) 3263.36 Kcal/kg

GROWER MASH FORMULA

A

Maize 48kg

Wheat bran 32kg

Soybean meal (SBM) 12.60kg

Lysine 0.25kg (250g)

Methionine 0.30kg (300g)

Salt 0.50kg (500g)

Vitamin Premix 0.25kg (250g)

Bone meal 3kg

Limestone 3kg

Enzymes 0.025kg (25g)

Toxic binder 0.10kg (100g)

Crude Protein (cp): 16.5%  

Metabolizable energy (ME) 2793.46 Kcal/kg

B

Maize 40kg

Palm Kernel Cake 6.5kg

Wheat bran 34kg

Soybean meal (SBM) 12kg

Lysine 0.25kg (250g)

Methionine 0.30kg (300g)

Salt 0.50kg (500g)

Vitamin Premix 0.25kg (250g)

Bone meal 3kg

Limestone 3kg

Enzymes 0.025kg (25g)

Toxic binder 0.10kg (100g)

Neobron 0.10kg (100g)

Crude Protein (cp): 16.5%  

Metabolizable energy (ME) 2674.75 Kcal/kg

 

LAYERS MASH

Maize 48.38kg

Wheat bran 22kg

Soybean meal (SBM) 17kg

Lysine 0.30kg (300g)

Methionine 0.30kg (300g)

Salt 0.50kg (500g)

Vitamin Premix 0.25kg (250g)

Bone meal 3.50kg

Limestone 7.50kg

Enzymes 0.025kg (25g)

Toxic binder 0.10kg (100g)

Phytase 0.15kg (150g)

Crude Protein (cp): 18.14%  

Metabolizable energy (ME) 2878.27 Kcal/kg

B

LAYERS MASH

Maize 50.075kg

Wheat bran 21kg

Soybean meal (SBM) 15kg

Fish meal 1.5kg

Lysine 0.25kg (250g)

Methionine 0.30kg (300g)

Salt 0.50kg (500g)

Vitamin Premix 0.25kg (250g)

Bone meal 3.50kg

Limestone 7.50kg

Enzymes 0.025kg (25g)

Toxic binder 0.10kg (100g)

Crude Protein (cp): 18.50%  

Metabolizable energy (ME) 2970.45 Kcal/kg

 

Chapter 4

FEED FORMULA FOR TURKEY, GEESE AND DUCK

FEED FORMULA FOR TURKEY (POULT 0-8 WEEKS)

A

Maize 54kg

Wheat bran 3kg

Soybean meal (SBM) 13.51kg

soy full fat 17kg

Fish meal (72% cp) 5kg

Poultry meal 3kg

Lysine 0.25kg (250g)

Methionine 0.30kg (300g)

Salt 0.50kg (500g)

Vitamin Premix 0.25kg (250g)

Bone meal 1.5kg

Limestone 1.5kg

Enzymes 0.025kg (25g)

Toxic binder 0.10kg (100g)

Neobron 0.10kg (100g)

Crude Protein (cp): 27.5%  

Metabolizable energy (ME) 3150 Kcal/kg

 

B

Maize 50kg

Wheat bran 3kg

Soybean meal (SBM) 18kg

soy full fat 15.93kg

Fish meal (72% cp) 6.5kg

Poultry meal 3kg

Lysine 0.30kg (300g)

Methionine 0.30kg (300g)

Salt 0.50kg (500g)

Vitamin Premix 0.25kg (250g)

Bone meal 1kg

Limestone 1kg

Enzymes 0.025kg (25g)

Toxic binder 0.10kg (100g)

Neobron 0.10kg (100g)

Crude Protein (cp): 26%  

Metabolizable energy (ME) 3179 Kcal/kg

FEED FORMULA FOR ADULT TURKEY

A

Maize 60.025kg

Brewery Dry Gain (BDG) 5kg

Soybean meal (SBM) 10kg

soy full fat 12kg

Poultry meal  7.5kg

Lysine 0.3kg (300g)

Methionine 0.30kg (300g)

Salt 0.50kg (500g)

Vitamin Premix 0.25kg (250g)

Bone meal 2kg

Limestone 2kg

Enzymes 0.030kg (30g)

Toxic binder 0.10kg (100g)

Crude Protein (cp): 21.5%  

Metabolizable energy (ME) 3200 Kcal/kg

B

Maize 55.025kg

Brewery Dry Gain (BDG) 5kg

Soybean meal (SBM) 10kg

soy full fat 17kg

Poultry meal  6.51kg

Lysine 0.30kg (300g)

Methionine 0.30kg (300g)

Salt 0.50kg (500g)

Vitamin Premix 0.25kg (250g)

Bone meal 2.5kg

Limestone 2.5kg

Enzymes 0.030kg (30g)

Toxic binder 0.10kg (100g)

Crude Protein (cp): 21.5%  

Metabolizable energy (ME) 3160 Kcal/kg

FEED FORMULA FOR YOUNG GEESE

Maize 54kg

Wheat bran 3kg

Soybean meal (SBM) 13.24kg

soy full fat 17kg

Fish meal (72% cp) 5.24kg

Poultry meal 3kg

Lysine 0.25kg (250g)

Methionine 0.30kg (300g)

Salt 0.50kg (500g)

Vitamin Premix 0.25kg (250g)

Bone meal 1.5kg

Limestone 1.5kg

Enzymes 0.025kg (25g)

Toxic binder 0.10kg (100g)

Neobron 0.10kg (100g)

Crude Protein (cp): 27.5%  

Metabolizable energy (ME) 3150 Kcal/kg

FEED FORMULA FOR GROWING GEESE

Maize 60.025kg

Brewery Dry Gain (BDG) 5kg

Soybean meal (SBM) 10kg

soy full fat 12kg

Poultry meal  7.5kg

Lysine 0.3kg (300g)

Methionine 0.30kg (300g)

Salt 0.50kg (500g)

Vitamin Premix 0.25kg (250g)

Bone meal 2kg

Limestone 2kg

Enzymes 0.025kg (25g)

Toxic binder 0.10kg (100g)

Crude Protein (cp): 21.5%  

Metabolizable energy (ME) 3200 Kcal/kg

FEED FORMULA FOR DUCKLING

Maize 58kg

Palm Kernel Cake  7kg

Soybean meal (SBM) 25kg

Fish meal 3.60kg

Lysine 0.25kg (250g)

Methionine 0.30kg (300g)

Salt 0.50kg (500g)

Vitamin Premix 0.25kg (250g)

Bone meal 2.50kg (2500g)

Limestone 2.50kg (2500g)

Enzymes 0.025kg (25g)

Toxic binder 0.10kg (100g)

Crude Protein (cp): 22.53%  

Metabolizable energy (ME) 3263.36 Kcal/kg

FEED FORMULA FOR GROWING DUCK

Maize 48kg

Wheat bran 27.075kg

Groundnut Cake (GNC) 5kg

Soybean meal (SBM) 7.50kg

Lysine 0.25kg (250g)

Methionine 0.30kg (300g)

Salt 0.50kg (500g)

Vitamin Premix 0.25kg (250g)

Bone meal 3.5kg

Limestone 7.5kg

Enzymes 0.025kg (25g)

Toxic binder 0.10kg (100g)

Crude Protein (cp): 16.5%  

Metabolizable energy (ME) 2793.46 Kcal/kg

FEED FORMULA FOR LAYING DUCK

Maize 50kg

Wheat bran 22kg

Soybean meal (SBM) 13.98kg

Fish meal 1.5kg

Lysine 0.25kg (250g)

Methionine 0.30kg (300g)

Salt 0.50kg (500g)

Vitamin Premix 0.25kg (250g)

Bone meal 3.50kg

Limestone 7.50kg

Enzymes 0.025kg (25g)

Toxic binder 0.10kg (100g)

Neobron 0.10kg (100g)

Crude Protein (cp): 18.50%  

Metabolizable energy (ME) 2970.45 Kcal/kg

 

Chapter 5

FEED FORMULA FOR RUMINANTS

FEED FORMULA FOR YOUNG RAM/CATTLE (pellet all ruminants and non ruminants feed for best result)

Maize 55kg

Brewery dry grain (BDG) 25kg

Soybean meal (SBM) 18.38kg

Lysine 0.25kg (250g)

Methionine 0.30kg (300g)

Salt 0.50kg (500g)

Vitamin Premix 0.25kg (250g)

DCP 0.2kg (200g)

Enzymes 0.025kg (25g)

Toxic binder 0.10kg (100g)

Crude Protein (cp): 21%  

Metabolizable energy (ME) 3061.50 Kcal/kg

FEED FORMULA FOR FATTENING RAM/CATTLE

Maize 60kg

Brewery dry grain (BDG) 20kg

Soy full fat 18.38kg

Lysine 0.25kg (250g)

Methionine 0.30kg (300g)

Salt 0.50kg (500g)

Vitamin Premix 0.25kg (250g)

DCP 0.2kg (200g)

Enzymes 0.025kg (25g)

Toxic binder 0.10kg (100g)

Crude Protein (cp): 18.69%  

Metabolizable energy (ME) 3314.59 Kcal/kg

FEED FORMULA FOR LACTATING RAM/CATTLE

Maize 55kg

Wheat bran 13kg

Soybean meal 20kg

Soy full fat 10.38kg

Lysine 0.25kg (250g)

Methionine 0.30kg (300g)

Salt 0.50kg (500g)

Vitamin Premix 0.25kg (250g)

DCP 0.2kg (200g)

Enzymes 0.025kg (25g)

Toxic binder 0.10kg (100g)

Crude Protein (cp): 18.69%  

Metabolizable energy (ME) 3314.59 Kcal/kg

FEED FORMULA FOR  RABBIT

A

Maize 45kg

Wheat bran 30kg

Soybean meal 23.38kg

Lysine 0.25kg (250g)

Methionine 0.30kg (300g)

Salt 0.50kg (500g)

Vitamin Premix 0.25kg (250g)

DCP 0.2kg (200g)

Enzymes 0.025kg (25g)

Toxic binder 0.10kg (100g)

Crude Protein (cp): 20%  

Metabolizable energy (ME) 3125.36 Kcal/kg

B

Maize 55kg

Wheat bran 25kg

Soybean meal 18.38kg

Lysine 0.25kg (250g)

Methionine 0.30kg (300g)

Salt 0.50kg (500g)

Vitamin Premix 0.25kg (250g)

DCP 0.2kg (200g)

Enzymes 0.025kg (25g)

Toxic binder 0.10kg (100g)

Crude Protein (cp): 18%  

Metabolizable energy (ME) 2898.81 Kcal/kg

C

FEED FORMULA FOR LACTATING  RABBIT

Maize 45kg

Wheat bran 25kg

Soy full fat 13kg

Soybean meal 15.38kg

Lysine 0.25kg (250g)

Methionine 0.30kg (300g)

Salt 0.50kg (500g)

Vitamin Premix 0.25kg (250g)

DCP 0.2kg (200g)

Enzymes 0.025kg (25g)

Toxic binder 0.10kg (100g)

Crude Protein (cp): 20%  

Metabolizable energy (ME) 3128.30 Kcal/kg

D

FEED FORMULA FOR FATTENING  RABBIT

Maize 47kg

Wheat bran 30.73kg

Soy full fat 20.75kg

Lysine 0.25kg (250g)

Methionine 0.30kg (300g)

Salt 0.50kg (500g)

Vitamin Premix 0.25kg (250g)

DCP 0.1kg (100g)

Enzymes 0.025kg (25g)

Toxic binder 0.10kg (100g)

Crude Protein (cp): 17%  

Metabolizable energy (ME) 3142.65 Kcal/kg

FEED FORMULA FOR  GRASSCUTTERS

Maize 55kg

Wheat bran 21.50kg

Soybean meal 22kg

Lysine 0.25kg (250g)

Methionine 0.30kg (300g)

Salt 0.50kg (500g)

Vitamin Premix 0.25kg (250g)

DCP 0.1kg (100g)

Enzymes 0.025kg (25g)

Toxic binder 0.10kg (100g)

Crude Protein (cp): 18%  

Metabolizable energy (ME) 2928.31 Kcal/kg

FEED FORMULA FOR  LACTATING  GRASSCUTTERS

Maize 50.075kg

Wheat bran 22.80kg

Soybean meal 10.50kg

Soy full fat 15kg

Lysine 0.25kg (250g)

Methionine 0.30kg (300g)

Salt 0.50kg (500g)

Vitamin Premix 0.25kg (250g)

DCP 0.2kg (200g)

Enzymes 0.025kg (25g)

Toxic binder 0.10kg (100g)

Crude Protein (cp): 18%  

Metabolizable energy (ME) 3125.36 Kcal/kg

FEED FORMULA FOR  GOAT

A

Maize 48kg

Wheat bran 27kg

Soybean meal 23.5kg

Lysine 0.25kg (250g)

Methionine 0.30kg (300g)

Salt 0.50kg (500g)

Vitamin Premix 0.25kg (250g)

DCP 0.1kg (100g)

Enzymes 0.025kg (25g)

Toxic binder 0.10kg (100g)

Crude Protein (cp): 18%  

Metabolizable energy (ME) 3125.36 Kcal/kg

B

Maize 48kg

Brewery spent grain 27kg

Soybean meal 23.5kg

Lysine 0.25kg (250g)

Methionine 0.30kg (300g)

Salt 0.50kg (500g)

Vitamin Premix 0.25kg (250g)

DCP 0.1kg (100g)

Enzymes 0.025kg (25g)

Toxic binder 0.10kg (100g)

Crude Protein (cp): 23%  

Metabolizable energy (ME) 3006 Kcal/kg

 

Chapter 6

FEED FORMULA FOR NON RUMINANT

FEED FORMULA FOR PIG (GROWER)

Maize 30kg

Cassava tuber 25kg 

Palm kernel cake 25kg

Soybean meal 18.13kg

Lysine 0.30kg (300g)

Methionine 0.30kg (300g)

Salt 0.50kg (500g)

Vitamin Premix 0.30kg (300g)

DCP 0.20kg (200g)

Enzymes 0.025kg (25g)

Phytase 0.15kg

Toxic binder 0.10kg (100g)

Crude Protein

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